So, what is social influence exactly?Comments

With the discussion firmly rooted on how to gauge and measure social influence we need to take a step back and look at the concept of influence itself. What exactly is it, how does it occur and how does online influence differ to offline?

Social influence is an umbrella term covering a range of actions causing a range of consequences. The concept originates in the social sciences but is now very much the topic du jour on the social web.

What are the "offline" definitions of social influence, how do they relate to the online experience and do we need to expand the definition for the age of the social web?

Variety

VarietyThe Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman described three varieties of social influence:

  • compliance - where people appear to agree but keep dissenting opinions private
  • identification - where people are influenced by someone liked and respected
  • internalisation - where people accept a belief or behaviour and agree both publicly and privately - they fully take it onboard

Compliance is a state of artificial influence and is described as a change in behaviour but not attitude - it is often referred to as submission as we may need to comply without necessarily agreeing with the issue at hand but feel the need to act in the way expected of us due to societal pressures.

Identification has its roots in the work of Sigmund Freud and, in its simplest form, is a behavioural change as a result of an emotional attachment to something or someone. We adopt the behaviour of those we like or respect, be they existing connections or those we would like to know or emulate. Celebrity advertising relies on this concept.

Internalisation is the complete adoption of behaviour and attitude and will normally occur when these are in accordance with our existing moral values or beliefs. It is far easier to influence those who already think or act in similar ways as there is minimal shift in mindset.

ConformThe need to Conform

Compliance and identification are viewed in some fields as different components of Conformity - the need to modify behaviour and/or attitude in order to fit in with a group.

Conformity is traditionally divided into two types:

  • normative conformity (compliance)
  • informational conformity (internalisation)

Normative conformity is compliance with the influence of others so that we may be liked and accepted. There is no guarantee that there will be an attitudinal shift but there will be a behavioural shift to conform with the social norms of the influencing group.

Virality on social networks can be a direct result of normative conformity with users wishing to be seen as cool by contributing to the spread of the latest meme.

Informational conformity, otherwise known as social proof, is a change to reflect what is seen as the correct behaviour for a situation due to the assumption that the influencers have more knowledge and experience of that situation so know how to respond - even if that assumption is incorrect. The belief that behaviour is correct can also result in an attitudinal shift giving rise to internalisation.

Behaviour on social networks is frequently affected by informational conformity as social media "experts" espouse notions of correct procedure such as when to tweet or the length of the ideal blog post.

Informational conformity can ultimately lead to a state of self-fulfilling prophecy when the proposed behaviour and attitude are so prevalent that they become the de facto standard.

Social impact

ImpactSocial impact theory, created by the social psychologist Bibb Latané, states that the impact of social influence is a function of its:

  • strength,
  • immediacy, and
  • number.

The theory uses mathematical equations to calculate impact (so cannot directly account for the humanising aspects of influence) but we can relate it to the concepts suggested for the definition of social gravity.

Immediacy (proximity or distance) and number (size of the influencing group) are the traditional gravity elements while strength can be interpreted as the more human elements, outlined as reputation, relevance and value.

The larger the influencing group, the closer it is both within the structure of the network and in terms of current behaviour and attitude, and the greater the reputation and relevance then the more persuasive it will be.

Social networks

Influence on social networks shares some similarities to that described in the social sciences but is distinct from its offline counterpart as there is a much larger gap between affecting behaviour and attitude.

Much of what is deemed influence on the social web is actually minor activity rather than a behavioural or attitudinal shift. While there is the potential for compliance, identification and internalisation to occur, social networks have introduced a new variety of influence: acknowledgement.

Thumbs upAcknowledgement is the quick hat tip, the Like or +1 to say "I've seen it, thanks". The implication is that acknowledgement is positive behaviour due to the language involved (liking) but there is no guarantee of actual behavioural influence or, indeed, any lasting impact.

There is no satisfactory offline equivalent to these actions apart from a quick thumbs up but this is strictly "in the moment".

As influence measurement on the social web is both incredibly difficult and limited in scope it places far greater importance on acts of acknowledgement as they are a permanent record despite, in many cases, being a throwaway action.

The phenomenon of acknowledgement is a double-edged sword in that it allows us to give or receive these quick messages of approval - it is nice to say thank you or to feel your efforts have been appreciated - but it also ambiguous and, often, a lazy alternative to something more meaningful.

Aiming high, hitting low

The goal of influence is to affect the attitude or behaviour of others (ideally both) so as to reinforce the position or opinion of the influencer.

True influence occurs when an idea is accepted and internalised but this is difficult to achieve. Consequently, the degree of influence will often slide from internalisation through identification and compliance to the lowest common denominator, acknowledgement, as the impact of influence decreases.

The very existence of social media has been influential in modifying our behaviour with arguments that the status update culture and visual web are shortening attention spans and reducing focus; perhaps we could say that this, in itself, is a negative aspect of conformity and compliance and a barrier to achieving social influence.

Images by dklimke, gentlemanhoganguila40 and MyEyeSees

So, what is social influence exactly?

Network science, influence and the social web.Comments

"At any moment in time, we are driven by and are an integral part of many interconnected, dynamically changing networks" - Katy Börner, Soma Sanyal and Alessandro Vespignani

NetworkMy original 3 R's of Influence proposal was compared to the principles of network science due to the nature of data and relationships required in order to ascertain a full picture of our influence over others. Network science was not something I was overly familiar with at the time so I have decided to take another look at how social networks and influence fit together based on these principles.

As a reminder, I proposed that social influence should be comprised of: reach, reputation and relevance.

We must also guard against the difference between perceived and actual influence where perceived influence is little more than garnering attention with single click, throwaway behaviour such as Likes or +1s.

Actual influence is encouraging someone to do something meaningful: a comment that adds value or writing their own post, changing their opinion or maybe even influencing a wider decision such as a purchase.

So, what is network science?

One definition of network science is "the study of network representations of physical, biological, and social phenomena leading to predictive models of these phenomena"; it is essentially the study of any kind of network, its formation, the behaviour of its members and the analysis thereof.

If you have spent any amount of time discussing the operation of social networks then you will already know more about the field than you might expect from the terminology involved to some of the core, common sense concepts:

  • A network (or graph) is composed of nodes (members) connected by edges (the links between them) - edges can be bilateral or unilateral and determines the type of network we are dealing with.
  • Bilateral links will create the formation of undirected graphs (or just graphs) which, from a social media perspective, we will recognise as having a "friending model" - nodes will enter a reciprocal relationship.
  • Unilateral links will promote the creation of directed graphs (or digraphs) which we will recognise as the "following model" - just because Person A follows Person B it does not imply that the connection goes both ways.

Directed and undirected graphs are often examined in isolation but, in reality, our networks comprise a mixture of bilateral and unilateral links and exist within the context of wider connections. We are frequently active on more than one social network so really need to investigate "multigraphs" as our connections often exist in more than one network and we have multiple edges between the same individuals depending on the means of connection.

We might have a bilateral edge between users on Facebook (friends) but only a unilateral edge on another service such as Twitter or Google+ (a one way following).

It is the combined impact (and not necessarily the sum) of these edges that, ultimately, determines the influence exerted by one node on another - we may not enjoy the same relationship on different networks.

Influence

Social influence measurement systems such as Klout and Kred attempt to operate in a multigraph environment but, as has been stated previously, often only have access to limited public data which cannot accurately determine the level of influence.

A data host, such as Facebook or Google, has direct access to both public and private data and also access to an extended set of "actions" so is far better placed to determine influence between nodes within the confines of its own graph but this acts in isolation and any potential ranking is independent of influence within any other graph unless the data host has sufficient access to other data sources - Google may have access to extended data via its search engine for example but certain private data will still be missing.

Random NetworkFriends and weighted graphs

As well as the number of edges (roughly translating to the number of friends) we may have, strength and frequency of interactions between nodes have an impact on the graph - and therefore the degree of influence exerted by those nodes.

Network science defines a node with a direct connection as a Neighbour - within the social web we will refer to this as a friend or follower based on the nature of the connection.

Connections between people are known as paths and if we are able to go from one node to another along a path - even if it means going via intermediate nodes - then this node is within our reach. Still all familiar terms.

Reach is perhaps an impersonal term so we tend to feel more comfortable with the likes of Facebook's "friend of a friend" but it still means exactly the same thing: someone connected via a path and, therefore, within our reach and potential influence.

The length of the path (how far removed a friend actually is) will usually determine the extend of influence but the influence afforded by specific events may override what is expected. Person A may not normally influence Person B very highly due to the social distance between them but a specific share may prompt action beyond the normal response for that path. This may be an isolated event, in which case it will have little impact on overall influence, but it may also cause Person B to create an edge (friend or follow) with Person A thus directly increasing the base level of influence between them.

As I have previously mentioned with regards to implicit and explicit graphs, the frequency of interaction can increase the degree of influence, especially for secondary/tertiary connections etc. The more frequently someone is exposed to a friend of a friend the more likely they are to be both influenced by them and to create a closer connection - just like the move from a repeated implicit graph to an explicit one.

The actions of our friends and followers (neighbours) can be seen to be very important in the determination of strength of connections and also the way our clusters are formed.

GravitySocial gravity

The concept of "graph density" is quite obvious: if the actual number of edges between nodes is close to the maximum possible number of edges then it is a dense graph. If a group of nodes within a larger graph is particularly dense it can be refered to as a cluster. A typical example is a group of friends on Facebook who all know each other.

The denser the graph the greater its influence due to increased communication between the nodes. A denser graph can be thought of as having its own "social gravity" - the more connections and interactions we experience within a group the more included we feel and, therefore, more likely to remain a member. A sparse graph is likely to have less regular interaction between members on its periphery and they are more likely to disconnect in search of a more fulfilling experience.

We can argue that influence is not only the ability to cause others to perform actions but to also maintain graph/network integrity even without necessarily prompting action; this can be the cumulative effect of the actions of members within the group rather than specific individuals.

Influence is not just for people.

Degrees and herd mentality

The number of connections (edges) that a node may have is known as its degree. The higher a nodes' degree, combined with the degree of those nodes to which it is attached, the more likely that it is "central" and, therefore, an influencer - all well and good we would assume.

The "Barabási–Albert (BA) model" for network generation states that as a network grows so those members with a high degree are more likely to receive new connections and we see this in action all the time within our social networks.

As individuals, our own social gravity will determine our ability to attract new followers but an element of herd mentality can also be at play. For every follower that connects due to a genuine interest there will be more who connect as it is the fashionable thing to do as that person is deemed an influencer.

New users of a social network will frequently seek out the popular, the influencers in an attempt to increase engagement during their first weeks or months on the service.

Social gravity can, therefore increase artificially rather than organically; the graph will experience an element of distortion especially when the network publishes a suggested user list based on the perceived popularity of its members.

It is not just the networks themselves that can cause potential issues when recommending other users. The practice of circle sharing on Google+, or list sharing on Facebook, are examples where fashion may override interest and, as I wrote in my post Do shared circles aid growth or hinder engagement? blindly adding shared circles or lists and not interacting with their members can skew the graph and also have a negative impact on influence.

The ratio of interactions to edges is important; as we have seen above, whilst having a high degree may seem like a node is influential it is the weighting of its edges that is the true mark of influence. A high number of edges all with very low weighting demonstrate that the central node does not actually exert that much influence as the strength of the connections (and consequently the ability to drive actions) is weak.

ConnectionsDegree correlation

Although it may be more prevalent for relatively unconnected users to seek out popular members we can also experience instances where nodes with a high degree (influencers) may prefer connecting with other influencers. This process is known as degree correlation and a frequent example is subject experts preferring to collaborate with other experts rather than the lay person.

The social web, however, is a great leveler allowing so degree correlation can be viewed as nothing more than social snobbery with influencers merely "broadcasting" to their followers but not interacting. This might work for some as their followers might just be willing to consume; for others, however, it can lead to a sense of resentment with the influencer seen as elitist.

Our social networks

When dealing with social networks we are almost always talking about clusters when we refer to our social graphs - small subsets of the network population. Some may only interact within a single cluster (a specific, contained group of friends) and others will have connections to many based on varied interests introducing a complexity that cannot be easily modeled.

Facebook is seemingly singular amongst social networks in that its functionality is obviously highly derived from network theory. Edgerank is a direction interpretation of the effects of edge weighting to determine influence between nodes. What annoys some users, however, is the impression that Edgerank assumes that users are ONLY interested in what influences them most and that, over time, this ranking becomes artificial as they have filtered items forced upon them and smart lists auto-populated with those deemed close friends or just acquaintances.

Twitter is all or nothing; we see everything from someone or nothing (unless it is shared by a mutual connection). At its core Google+ is all or nothing - we add someone to a circle or we don't - we do, however, have the ability to manually weight those circles thus increasing or reducing their visibility within our primary stream. By tuning our circles we are specifying who we are (or want to be) influenced by. We are manually adopting the principles of network science without knowing it by altering the edge weighting ourselves rather than having it automated.

Both Facebook and Google+ provide the means to circumvent edge weighting by showing "Most Recent Stories" or viewing individual circles respectively but this relies on the user; many will not toggle the view of their Facebook feed or view individual circles.

What of the 3 R's?

Network science adequately covers the concept of reach as we seen above and begins to touch on the idea of reputation when we start addressing social gravity and the weight of our connections.

While a number of models exist for the formation and growth of networks the one thing they cannot accurately represent is relevance. The human factor involved in our interactions is unique and, as has been written before, what is relevant will change based on context including:

  • trust
  • interest
  • location
  • platform

The level of trust placed in an individual might be indicated by the number, strength and duration of connections but all too often we will let our social circles stagnate and not remove those with whom we no longer interact.

Our interests will vary according to our circumstances so the workings of any social group will be hard to predict once we factor in variables such as location and platform - be it mobile or desktop, different operating system or applications or different social networks.

Influence scoring

All this aside, we recognise base elements of the organisation and behaviour of our the social web in the principles of network science and this can serve as some degree of comfort to our time spent online - a validation that there is, perhaps, more to it than just meaningless status updates. We can also see these principles at work in the methods employed by the influence measurement systems as they seek to evaluate the impact of our connections across the range of social graphs.

Opinion on the efficacy of influence measurement services is widely contradictory. The science behind the likes of Klout and Kred, however, is actually quite sound but calculations based on a flawed data set are always going to be problematic.

Social influence measurement in its current form must not be used in isolation but can be treated as a base on which to add the more human elements of online interaction.

Images by futureshape, OpenBioMedicalRubin 110 and bupowski

Network science, influence and the social web.

Social influence, or "not preaching to the choir".Comments

Social influence is among the current topics of conversation and again, bloggers are treading similar waters and their combined thoughts creating something that is greater than the some of its parts.

What is influence?

Talk in the past has revolved around what an influencer actually is. Do the A-List bloggers have more influence? Are they still relevant? From my perspective anyone can be an influencer, it all comes down to the scope of your own individual influence.

There are no hard and fast rules, although measuring social influence may give us guidelines. What may influence one person may not influence another so, to use advertising as an example, you either have multiple methods (TV, radio, magazines) or go for the most bang for your buck based on market research. It comes down to working out the best way to influence any given demographic and, conversely, realising how your target demographic is actually influenced.

The web has changed the nature of influence with the introduction of obscure, viral campaigns which get people talking and trying to figure out what it's all about before the big reveal; the problem is that this type of influence only affects a portion of the population - those who are already clued up, web savvy and most likely to jump in with both feet.

The question being asked now is: how do we go beyond those who "get it" and start to teach those who don't or those who have not even been exposed to the thing to "get"? We're talking about niche products and services going mainstream and new ideas becoming a part of the global consciousness.

Shey Smith calls for us all to become social media interpreters rather than evangelists. Instead of harping on about how great services are we really need to begin breaking them down and really explaining the benefits that they can provide, using simple language to explain how and, more importantly, why things work to those who may not readily understand.

Mark Dykeman of the Broadcasting Brain followed up on my post "Life by social media rules" and went on to discuss the nature of role models and the part they play. Role models are perfect examples of influencers in action; kids will always emulate their favourite sports star, dress like a pop star and buy products advertised by film stars - it's all part of the learning experience and the road to becoming your own person. The twist with mark's post, however, is that he argues the existence of different types of role model based on the method of exposure and sphere of influence.

The Role Model 3.0 - as he calls it - is a result of the boom in social media (blogs included). They are the big voices, the people we all follow on Twitter, the ones with the creative personalities and the big ideas. The idea, however, should only be the beginning.

Value

The real value is in the discussion, one post, thought or service may be the catalyst but it’s what comes after that counts. The old saying goes that two heads are better than one but what about ten heads, a thousand, a million? The more people that can be engaged the better and if those people are from different walks of life, cultures, mindsets etc. then better still. The geek echo chamber will normally just go round in circles but when you get someone in from the outside with a totally different view it stirs things up and can get people thinking in ways that hadn’t previously considered.

They say that necessity is the mother of invention and throughout history some of the finest ideas have come from challenges both for survival and to the intellect. We too need to be challenged to take the conversation further, be forced to come up with new ideas and re-address those we already subscribe to. What better way than by forcing ourselves to explain what we do and why we do it to those who don't know.

Just think about when you tell a child something and they just say "why?" - that's the position we're in now with those who don't use social media and the answer "because" won't cut it.

Following on from what I said previously about pushing ourselves in to new areas and connecting with people, why not bring those people back with us so that they can do things that they didn't consider? In this way we can all be role models.

What will you do?

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Social influence, or "not preaching to the choir".